How Water Coolers Work

Water coolers with built-in dispenser are a common facility found in schools, hospitals, offices and homes. It is an efficient alternative to water bottles and offers a sanitary supply of water for public facilities. All water coolers provide cool water but some units also offer both cold and hot water. Some types even provide hot water, which is hot enough for coffee, instant noodles and soups.

Two Main Types of Water Coolers

Apart from water cooler types, which offer hot water, there are two basic kinds of water coolers. Primarily, there are bottle-less water coolers and bottled water coolers that can both provide cold water. The main difference between the two is that they store water differently. Bottled types mainly use a large, usually clear plastic bottle to store water. More often than not, this kind of water cooler uses the top-load system. Preference can vary from region to region and customer to customer eg the kind of water coolers in Manchester office workers may prefer are those that dispense mineral water from large bottles placed on the top of the cooler.

On the other hand, bottle-less water coolers are connected to the primary water supply and use filtration system to supply clean water. These two kinds of water coolers have control switch for cooling and heating mechanisms of the dispenser.

How a Water Cooler Works to Produce Chilled Water

Water Cooler ComponentsUsing gravity, water is easily dispensed from the bottle and will pass through an internal filter and into an insulated reservoir. In order to cool water before proper dispensation, water coolers usually have a supply station or a reservoir within the dispenser that stores enough water. This storage area is concentrated with a refrigerant using specialized system of thermoelectricity. Water cooling units with refrigerant use a compressor inside the machine to chill water using Freon, which can easily absorb heat, and lower the level of temperature inside the reservoir.

Once the refrigerant passes through the cooling system, it will evaporate into has and will lead to compressed state, in which it can easily absorb heat in the reservoir. As the water cooler dispenses cold water, the system will refill the storage area and the process of refrigeration will start again. If the reservoir becomes totally empty, it may take several minutes before the water cooler makes the water chilled again.

Thermoelectricity and the Peltier Effect

Water coolers employing thermoelectricity to cool water operate using a chilling mechanism grounded on the Peltier effect, which happens when electricity passes into different materials such as metal to ceramics. As electric current pass through from one material to another, the energy will be absorbed into the material with higher conductivity. This will lead to the chilling effect of the water stored in the reservoir. Thermoelectric coolers situated in a hotter setting, on the other hand, may not cool down as fast as water coolers using a compressor mechanism.

Air Replacement Mechanism

As the water cooler dispenses water, it is important that the released water will be replaced by something or else the bottle will collapse because of the pressure from the air outside. Hence, a small air tube will enter the bottle and will float above releasing air pockets. The air tube is also added with a small filter. As water is released from the cooler, it will be replaced by filtered air. The float will also go down as the level of water plummets, which opens a valve that lets water to flow easily.

Water Filtration System

It is highly recommended that the water inside the bottle is already filtered before it is loaded to the cooler. However, some coolers also have built-in filtration system, apparently to make sure that the water is not contaminated. Some water coolers can also purify water using reverse osmosis, in which the water is filtered using a semi permeable membrane that can filter out chemicals like excessive chlorine and other carcinogens.

How Water Is Made Safe To Drink

Making Water Safe

No living thing can survive without water – this is a fact. Everyone needs water but you have to make sure that you have water that is fit for human consumption because not all the water we see around us is safe to drink. There are so many contaminants brought on by pollution which make our water unfit for drinking without treatment. These substances cannot be detected through the appearance, smell or taste of water, but most of them require chemical testing to accurately check for their presence.

Contaminants are spread by humans and animals but there are also those that come as by-products of industry and agriculture. These contaminants are not visible to the naked eye. That is why you should be careful not to drink any untreated water. Unclean water can give rise to all sorts of illnesses to humans, especially to those who have a quite sensitive immune system.

Water Cooler Water Treatment

Modern Water Treatment For Water Cooler Supplies

Not everyone has access to clean water, but everyone can help make their water safe for drinking.

We can all protect our water by minimizing the contaminants that affect it and minimising water pollution by getting more involved in conserving our environment. Just by maintaining clean surroundings and helping educate people about the importance of a sanitised and hygienic environment will assist enormously.

Water Treatment in Underdeveloped Countries

Rivers, artesian wells and lakes are a few sources of water that are treated in people’s homes. The traditional way and maybe the oldest means of disinfecting water is through boiling. Water is treated through heat, long and hot enough to kill or inactivate microorganisms that are harmful to your body. Boiled water though, should not be stored for a long time otherwise, new pathogens may begin to build up.

The use of crushed Moringa seeds is also suitable for domestic use in water purification. Moringa trees are found in many places throughout Africa and Asia. Its wood and leaves are used as medicines. The seed from a Moringa tree is a natural coagulant, which makes it great in treating cloudy or turbid water. When powdered Moringa seeds are added to water, they pull together floating particles like dirt, germs, worms and other solids. These particles can be found at the bottom of a storage container once the water settles. This kind of process may not give absolute assurance that water is one hundred percent safe, but at least you have eliminated most of its bacterial concentration. You can continue on another treatment like solar disinfection or filtering but never chlorinate the water as it may have an adverse reaction with the powdered seeds of Moringa tree.

Water Treatment in Developed Countries

In developed countries, a multi-step process is usually adopted for the treatment of water for human use or consumption purposes. Firstly, rainwater is collected from rivers, reservoirs or underground sources and stored for future use.

And because the quality of the water can vary from these sources, different types of treatment are applied to the water as required. The initial part of this particular process involves screening large objects from the water like leaves, branches or other debris. Then smaller particles are removed using a process called flocculation followed by filtering using rapid gravity or sand filters. Further processes may also be used to remove very fine particles like ion exchange, carbon or ozone treatment.

Finally, tiny amounts of chlorine are added to the water to kill any remaining bacteria before water is made available for use in modern water systems or via a mass distribution system of pumping stations and pipes.

The Water Cycle – Replenishing Our Water


The Earth is mostly covered by the bodies of water that make up the 71% of our planet. Most people may have heard of the water cycle, but many are not fully aware of the whole process. As long as we know that we have the water to quench our thirst, to clean our body and to use in our other water consumption activities, we are happy. But learning something about the water cycle will make a difference to our understanding about our environment and resources here on earth provide for our well being via our convenient water taps.


Water Coolers ManchesterAlso called the hydrologic cycle, the water cycle is a series of water movements in its various forms. Water moves about the earth and undergoes different transformations as it goes from the sky to the Earth and back to the sky again.

Since the whole process is circular, there’s no real identifiable starting point for where the water forms and where it disappears to. Water changes states from liquid to solid but it never really does disappear. It takes the form of rain, snow, ice, hail, vapour as it moves from one place to another like from clouds to ocean to clouds to river – the process repeats in a cycle through precipitation, evaporation, runoff and condensation.

Looking at how the water cycle works is like staring at a big circle of motions. Sun generally serves as the element that drives the water cycle. With the heat it’s giving out, water from the oceans and seas evaporates on air as vapour. The rising air takes the vapour up into the clouds together with something called evapotranspiration, or the water that transpired from plants and Earth’s soil. Cooler temperatures will then cause water vapours to float around as clouds until it falls down back to lands and oceans through precipitation, which takes the forms of either rainfalls or snow. Some precipitation falls in snow form are built up as glaciers which last for thousands of years while the snows in other places melt during the spring and summer and flows back to stream and river until it reaches again the oceans and the whole water cycle repeats itself all over.


1.  EVAPORATION – is a form of phase transformation from liquid to gas, of which takes place only on the liquid’s surface. The transformation is caused by the heating up of the liquid as result of the sun rays. It also includes evapotranspiration where water comes out from plant and soil in the form of gas.

2. CONDENSATION – as the water vapour rises up to the sky, the cooler temperature there cause the vapour to condense or be transformed to liquid on air, creating clouds and fog.  Something called advection also happens with movement of water through the atmosphere. Without advection, water would just fall back to where it evaporated (mainly in the oceans), which would mean very little rainfall on land that is used to grow crops or rear animals for our consumption.

3. PRECIPITATION – happens when the vapour that condensed falls to the ground or oceans in forms of rain, snow, or sleet. It occurs when a part of the atmosphere get saturated already with the water vapour. Some precipitation falls never reach the ground because they are intercepted by plant foliage, which will eventually evaporate back to the atmosphere.

4. RUNOFF – there are diverse ways in which water flows across the land either by surface or channel runoff. Water moves over land surfaces or may seep underground, into subterranean aquifers from which natural mineral water is extracted for our consumption or until it reaches the ocean after breaking the surface and flowing into streams and rivers.

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